Scheme for the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities

Varicose veins are the scourge of modern humanity. But often the treatment of varicose veins, whose scheme is chosen individually, ends successfully. Sometimes the question is only in therapy and drugs, but sometimes the situation is saved only by surgery. What are the ways to get rid of this unpleasant and serious disease?

Varicose veins - basic information

Varicose veins are a pathological condition characterized by damage to the venous vessels.

There are special valves in the veins that act as a kind of closure, preventing blood from flowing down (the venous blood in the legs flows from the bottom up).

Failure of the valve system leads to blood reflux and congestion.As a result of these processes, the veins weaken, stretch and deform, unable to cope with the rising blood pressure.

The result is a symptom known to many - bulging veins on the surface of the skin, which indicates the dynamic development of the pathology.

The whole insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that in the initial stages it manifests itself as normal fatigue and heaviness in the legs.

Therefore, many are in no hurry to see a doctor and begin to sound the alarm when the blue strands become visible on the skin, spoiling the appearance of the legs.

Learn more about the symptoms of an early varicose vein here.

The reasons for the development of this pathology are very diverse.These include both congenital anomalies of the vascular system and some provoking factors: sedentary lifestyle, overweight, uncomfortable shoes, professional activities related to prolonged standing.

The treatment of the disease is always comprehensive.The necessary scheme is selected by a specialist based on the stage of development of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism.

Which doctor treats veins?

what is varicose veins

Varicose veins are not just varicose veins, but also serious valve disorders and circulatory failure, which leads to serious complications throughout the body. And if the first symptoms appear - swelling of the veins, muscle cramps, constant heaviness in the legs - you should immediately make an appointment with a phlebologist.

Based on the severity of the case, the causes of the disease and the state of health, the doctor will choose the most appropriate treatment from the options available today.

Threatening symptoms

The main causes that lead to varicose veins are: heredity, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary or standing work, hormonal imbalance in the body. According to statistics, 40% of older women and 20% of men have signs of varicose veins.

Phlebologist deals with the diagnosis of the disease, you should contact himif such symptoms occur:

  • Heaviness in the legs, which worsens at the end of the day.
  • Rapid fatigue of the legs during prolonged walking.
  • Leg pain.
  • The appearance of a fine vascular network of the legs.
  • Swelling of the legs.
  • Convulsions that increase in intensity at night.
  • Itchy skin on the lower extremities.

Graduallyatrophy of muscle fibers of superficial veins develops, blood vessels lengthen, dilate, distort, nodules appear on them, protruding above the surface of the skin. The skin over the varicose veins becomes bluish-red, dry and hot, ulcers appear due to eating disorders in the tissues.

Due to dystrophic changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, lipodermatosclerosis can develop - a dangerous complication of varicose veins of the legs, the treatment of which with conservative methods can be unsuccessful.

To avoid the severe consequences of varicose veins, phlebologists advise their patientsto start treatment on timewhen the first signs of the disease appear.

Methods of treatment

Sclerosis is highly effective, which consists in injecting a special sclerosing substance into the vessels using a syringe with the finest needle. The venous lumens are tightened, the edges of the ruptures are soldered, thus stopping the flow of blood outside the vessels. The substance itself, which has fulfilled its function, is absorbed.

This method removes all defects and gives an excellent cosmetic result. But after the procedure it is necessary to maintain the condition of the veins with additional therapy and to wear compression garments.

Almost 10 years ago, laser, or rather endovenous laser coagulation, began to be used very successfully in medicine to combat varicose veins. Treat the veins as follows:

  1. With the help of local anesthesia, a small puncture is made in the vein.
  2. An optical fiber is inserted into the resulting hole.
  3. The laser acts on damaged areas, sealing the damage.
  4. Then a new tissue appears in the sealed place.

The operation is not performed "blindly" - the process is monitored by an ultrasonic machine, so there is virtually no risk of damage. In addition, the lack of significant incisions precludes painful sensations, bleeding and disruption of adjacent tissues.

After the procedure, you should bandage the affected areas or wear compression stockings and tights.

Radiofrequency ablation is often used and high-frequency current successfully treats varicose veins. This happens as follows:

  1. The vein is punctured.
  2. A catheter is inserted into the hole.
  3. The broadcast enters the court through it.
  4. The conductor acts at the molecular level, altering the protein molecules of the damaged vein.

The method allows you to quickly treat all venous nodes and does not require special postoperative therapy.

Methods for treating varicose veins

There are two of them: conservative and surgical. The patient is faced with an urgent question: how to treat varicose veins of the legs without surgery. When choosing a method, the doctor takes into account the signs, stage of the disease, the presence of complications, comorbidities, the patient's age. Non-surgical methods to eliminate varicose veins of the lower extremities give good results only when the symptoms of the pathology are still weak.

To stop the breakdown of the affected vessels, help:

  • drug therapy;
  • compression therapy;
  • physiotherapy exercises;
  • physiotherapy;
  • massage;
  • recipes for traditional medicine;
  • diet.

Phlebologists try to choose for patients during pregnancy exclusively non-drug treatments for varicose veins of the lower extremities. First of all, these are compression underwear, gymnastic exercises, physiotherapy, massage, diet. If medications are still needed, only topical medications are prescribed.

methods of treating varicose veins

The debate over whether hirudotherapy helps with varicose veins continues. Hirudin, produced by leeches, penetrates the venous system of the lower extremities, dilutes the thickened blood. Today, however, there are many modern drugs with the same property. In addition, there are risk factors for the use of leeches - vascular infection, allergic reactions.

If necessary, the treatment of varicose veins is carried out by radical methods. This:

  • sclerotherapy;
  • ozone therapy;
  • cryotherapy;
  • electrocoagulation;
  • laser coagulation;
  • surgical intervention.

Sclerotherapy - injection into a diseased vein of a drug that "sticks" the dilated vessel. It stops pumping blood and gradually dissolves. The maximum effectiveness of sclerotherapy is achieved at an early stage of the pathology. A similar method is ozone therapy: part of this gas is injected with a syringe into the lumen of small veins and the vessels also "stick".

Cold is used during cryotherapy procedures. During electrocoagulation, a high-frequency current is applied to the vessels through a very thin electrode. Laser treatment of varicose veins is also an effective modern method, especially when used in combination with conservative methods. At the same time, the cosmetic result is high: after a few weeks the patient has no scars or scars.

However, surgical removal is the most effective treatment that allows you to radically get rid of varicose veins when drug therapy does not lead to the desired result. Diseased vessels are removed by local subcutaneous incisions. After the operation, the leg is tightly bandaged and after three to four hours the patient can walk.

Principles of medical treatment of varicose veins

Effective treatment of varicose veins is possible only if the selected drugs prevent the mechanisms of pathology, destruction of vascular walls and valves.

The main tasks of medical treatment of varicose veins are:

principles of drug treatment
  • restoration of blood circulation;
  • strengthening of venous walls;
  • increased vascular tone;
  • decrease in blood viscosity;
  • prevention of blood clots;
  • normalization of the valve system;
  • elimination of inflammatory processes;
  • normalization of blood circulation in the capillaries.

Medicines are indispensable in the complex treatment of the disease.

They are also widely used for preventive purposes, which is especially important for people at risk of developing pathology.

To date, there are a large number of drugs for the treatment of varicose veins in the legs and they are all different in composition and mechanism of action.

See a doctor

Varicose veins are a serious diseasethat, if treated improperly or not, can threaten various complications that are dangerous to human health and life.

Help. Vital thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers - this is not a complete list of complications of varicose veins that pose a threat to humans.

In this regard, you should not even try to self-medicate.

Experiments at home with the choice of drugs can either worsen the situation or be ineffective.

In any case, this is a waste of time, health and resources.

Therefore, you should contact a phlebologist. Only a specialist will be able to choose the right drugs and build a treatment regimen so as to achieve maximum benefit for the patient.

What medications are used

what drugs are used for varicose veins

The complex treatment of varicose veins consists in the use of several groups of drugs at once:

  1. Phlebotonics.
  2. Anticoagulants.
  3. Anti-inflammatory.
  4. Fibrinolytics.

Also, to enhance the therapeutic effect, means of systemic and local actionare used.

Creams, gels, ointmentsare used as topical preparations. When choosing drugs for varicose veins and thrombophlebitis, it should be borne in mind that this is the agentin the form of an ointment, which is characterized by the highest content of the active ingredient.

Important!A common contraindication to all topical medications is a violation of skin integrity.

As a rule, such drugs are administered several times a day and the product should be rubbed with light movements from the bottom up.

Drug groups and their effect

For venous varicose veins, drugs are classified according to the type of action intothree main groups:

  • venotonic or phlebotropic agents;
  • blood thinners (anticoagulants) and drugs that inhibit platelet adhesion (antiplatelet agents);
  • anti-inflammatory drugs.

Research and medical practice have proven the effectiveness of phlebotonics developed on the basis of natural flavonoids- diosmin and hesperide. These substances not only protect the cells of the veins, but stimulate the flow of lymph and stabilize the work of the capillaries. Concomitant use of combination drugs, in which both flavonoids are present, are particularly effective.

how medications are taken

Most often phlebotropic agentsare taken for 2 to 3 months of courses. It is important that the intake coincides with the hot season, when the load on the vessels increases due to the high air temperature and the use of large volumes of water. If varicose veins are accompanied by chronic venous insufficiency, phlebotonics are taken continuously at half the dose.

A patient diagnosed with varicose veinsshould receive systematic treatment from the outsetto prevent the development of the disease and reduce the likelihood of complications.

The second task is solved by drugs that dilute the blood (anticoagulants) and improve its flowing properties, preventing the formation of thrombotic clots (antiplatelet agents).

The formation of blood clots, their separation from the vessel wall and the movement of the venous bed leads to overlapping of the vessels of the heart, lungs and human brain. As a result, the likelihood of developing a heart attack, pulmonary embolism and ischemic stroke is very high.

Antiplatelets are not a cure for varicose veins, but are used as a means of preventing its serious complications- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We can say that these drugs save the patient's life and minimize the risk of injury.

Operation

Removal of damaged veins of the lower extremities or their parts is done through incisions or punctures. Elimination of diseased vessels in the clinic is necessary if:

  • the veins of the legs are pathologically enlarged;
  • the skin is affected;
  • trophic ulcers appeared;
  • Thrombophlebitis worsened.

Surgical treatment of varicose veins of the legs is contraindicated:

  • in severe hypertension, coronary artery disease, infectious diseases, eczema;
  • if the patient has already reached old age;
  • during pregnancy (over 5 months).

Adjunctive therapy

In addition to medical and surgical treatment, additional treatment is important, including a number of measures to normalize the veins:

  1. Wrapping has a relaxing effect, removes the feeling of heaviness in the legs. When buying the necessary funds it is worth remembering that hot sheaths for varicose veins are contraindicated.
  2. Foot baths are another way to help relieve stress from your feet. Using medicinal herbs and oils, you can strengthen blood vessels, get rid of puffiness and redness. But the effect will be only with daily use of the method.
  3. Contrasting shower. 10 seconds of cold douching and 30 seconds of warm (it is best to avoid hot water) for 5-7 minutes each morning will help keep your veins in good shape. For these purposes you can use a shower Alexeev or Sharko.

Phlebologists often include physiotherapy in complex treatment - laser, magnetic therapy, electrophoresis.

They do not cause discomfort and pain, cheap and quite effective. In addition, the treatment takes place under the supervision of medical professionals. The main condition is regular visits to the office.

Physiotherapy has a beneficial effect on the condition of the venous walls, muscle tissue and valve activity.

adjunctive therapy for varicose veins

Compression therapy is an important component not only of treatment, but also of prevention and postoperative period. The use of bandages will avoid stagnant processes, help damaged vessels and stop the progression of the disease.

Applying bandages requires certain knowledge and dexterity, as excessive overexposure can lead to deterioration, and a weak bandage will not give the desired effect. Therefore, for the proper use of bandages, it is worth consulting a doctor.

Massage for varicose veins is not acceptable in all cases, so only a doctor can tell whether it is worth using it in a particular case or not. If the method is chosen correctly, after the first session you can feel the result. This method can improve blood microcirculation, relieve the main symptoms of the disease, including external.

The more advanced the disease, the harder it is to fight it, and sometimes patients come too late and then there is only one way out - phlebectomy. To prevent this from happening, you should not wait for complications, but receive timely qualified help.

Conservative method

Phlebologists in the treatment of varicose veins strive to cope without traumatic surgery, which is not necessary in the early stages of the disease. For example, this is characteristic of reticular varicose veins, the manifestation of which is limited only by blue venous networks. Medications help to improve the condition of the valves and vessel walls. Men, as well as women, should wear compression knitwear. The pathology cannot be completely cured. However, conservative methods stop the development of varicose veins and prevent complications.

Gymnastics

gymnastics for varicose veins

Exercise therapists know how to remove leg veins by performing physiotherapy exercises. This is possible provided that exercises that improve blood flow to the legs are performed systematically. For example:

  1. In the upright position, the heels of the legs are vigorously raised sequentially.
  2. In the same upright position, they slowly rise on their toes and descend just as slowly.
  3. Sitting in a chair, roll a small ball on the floor with your feet back and forth.

Wearing special underwear

Doctors recommend combining medical treatment of varicose veins with wearing compression underwear - these are products made of a special type of knitwear that puts pressure (compression) on the veins. The degree of pressure of the linen on the walls of the dishes can be adjusted by purchasing products with different degrees of compression.

There are a total of four degrees of compression: the first is used for prevention and the rest for treatment. In varicose veins of the lower extremities wear tights, socks, knee and leggings, the doctor chooses the necessary degree of compression.

Compression underwear creates a tight crushing frame on the legs, This develops the following effects:

  • Weak leg muscles are maintained.
  • The walls of the blood vessels are compressed, thus preventing them from stretching.
  • Lymph flow and blood circulation are stimulated.
  • Stagnation is eliminated.
  • Venous valve function is normalized.
  • The load on the varicose veins is reduced.
  • Thrombophlebitis is prevented.

It is mandatory to wear compression knitwear after surgery for varicose veins. Underwear helps prevent the recurrence of the disease, creates additional support for the body during the rehabilitation period.

Compression sclerotherapy

Compression sclerotherapy is a modern method of treating varicose veins, which consists of injecting drugs into the affected veins. As a result, sclerosis (sticking) of the venous walls occurs, the blood flow at the injection site stops and the vein gradually dissolves or leaves behind a barely noticeable thread that does not bother the patient at all.

Sclerotherapy is most often performed when spider veins appear, when varicose veins are in the initial stage. With the progressive development of varicose veins of the legs, treatment with sclerotherapy is carried out after analysis of the condition of the venous valves and vascular walls, the functional characteristics of the patient's circulatory system.

If a decision is made to perform compression sclerotherapy, the patient undergoes a blood clotting test, an ultrasound examination of the veins. When performing sclerotherapy, the patient does not experience painful sensations, as the drug is injected into a vein using the thinnest needle. At the end of the procedure, a sterile bandage is applied to the area of ​​application of the drug and the patient wears a compression garment. The first week after sclerotherapy, compression stockings should be worn around the clock, after which it is allowed to be removed at night.

Positive results from sclerotherapy:

  • Restore effective blood flow.
  • Exclusion of blood clots in the damaged vein.
  • Prevention of tissue trophic disorders.
  • Elimination of clinical symptoms of varicose veins: edema, seizures, pain.
  • Excellent cosmetic effect due to the fact that varicose veins completely disappear.

Diet

For more effective treatment of varicose veins of the legs, it is important to organize nutrition properly. Fruits, apples, citrus fruits, which contain flavonoids, antioxidants, rutin, help to improve the condition of blood vessels. Blood thinning provides daily intake of sufficient fluid (1, 5-2 liters). The diet with varicose veins of the legs is incompatible with fatty, fried foods, hot spices, alcohol.

Folk remedies

Treatment of varicose veins with folk remedies at home in the summer is especially effective. The following recipes are popular:

  1. 15-20 minutes foot compresses with tomato paste. It has a high content of lycopene, which actively strengthens blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots. At the same time it is useful to eat fresh tomatoes every day.
  2. Infusion of sweet clover, an herb that is indispensable for varicose veins: Art. l. the raw materials are boiled with two cups of boiling water, kept until cool, filtered. They drink half a cup 3 times a day, the rest of the volume is used as lotions.

What not to do

When you are diagnosed with varicose veins, you need to pay attention to lifestyle, diet and sports.Not allowed:

  • active physical activity, running, jumping (yoga classes are allowed);
  • prolonged standing or prolonged sitting;
  • use of all drugs without consulting a phlebologist;
  • long flights with forced immobility of the legs. In addition, at high altitudes there is a sharp thickening of the blood, which leads to the formation of blood clots;
  • taking hot baths, visiting the sauna;
  • Cupming and massage with honey is strictly forbidden, only manual medical massage is allowed.

Possible complications

Trophic ulcersis ​​a form of complication of varicose veins, which manifests itself in the development and deepening of a long-term non-healing ulcer. A separate painful ulcer usually develops on the lower leg, inside which there is often a "leak" in the form of a discharge of serous bloody fluid covering the affected tissues.

Emergency medical care

when to ask for help

Immediate medical attention is required if any of the following symptoms occur:

  • Increased pain in the affected limb, inability to get out of bed or take a few steps;
  • The skin of the feet is hot, swollen and tight to the touch.
  • Skin color changes from pale to bluish or bluish red;
  • Sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sweating and severe weakness;
  • Bleeding from affected skin or varicose veins.

The necessary drugs for varicose veins of the lower extremities should be included in the complex treatment regimen.Even after surgery, several courses of phlebotonic and antiplatelet drugs will be neededto prevent possible trophic disorders, inflammation and complications associated with the disease.

Many multicomponent drugs for varicose veins work in combination, have several functions. The effectiveness of such drugs is more pronounced.It is optimal to use treatment courses in the correct dosage, calculated by the phlebologist, in combination with compression therapy, yoga lessons, swimming in the pool, herbal medicine.

Conclusion

The complex treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities involves the use of various therapeutic methods.

Physiotherapy, special exercises, massage, etc. are prescribed together with medicines.

20.09.2020